Zoom lenses offer a range of focal lengths to be used by the photographer to adjust the settings based on various parameters. Zoom lenses are much more popular than prime lenses for several reasons. Perhaps the biggest reason zoom lenses are so popular today is that the incredible versatility they offer photographers. The focal-length flexibility is the strongest advantage of zoom lenses. Having a range of focal lengths in a single lens is very convenient, particularly to mobile users and those with varying photography needs. You are guaranteed never to miss a shot if an opportunity present itself without the worry of not having the right lens.
A wide-angle lens is any lens with a short focal length (remember: the shorter the focal length of the lens, the wider the field of view, and the more you’ll be able to fit in your frame). If you want to produce good architectural or landscape shots, then the wide-angle zoom is the perfect match as it extends the field of view beyond that captured with the kit lens. There are 3 classes of wide-angle lenses namely fish-eye, ultra-wide, and wide.
You can easily identify a fish-eye lens by looking at its front element that bows outwards, allowing it to see as wide as 180 degrees (like a fish). The end result of the fish-eye effect is almost abstract images. An ultra-wide angle lens has a focal length shorter than 20mm and its design is purposed to correct the fish-eye deficiencies such as distortion. Canon EF 11-24mm f/4L USM Lens.
A regular wide-angle lens has a focal length shorter than 35mm, allowing it to capture wide scenes, larger depth of field and extensive angle of view
A telephoto lens has a longer focal length and a narrower field of view than the standard lens enabling it to capture a magnified image. It allows the photographer to get closer to the image which makes it a perfect choice for sports and wildlife photography. Telephoto zoom lenses are favorites of wildlife photographers in particular because they allow them to take pictures of animals without disturbing them, thus enabling them to get more authentic and natural images. Nikon AF-S FX NIKKOR 200-500mm f/5.6E ED Vibration Reduction Zoom Lens with Auto Focus falls into this category.
I guess there’s no standard definition for the superzoom lens. However it is generally agreed that a superzoom lens has a zoom factor (max focal length/min focal length) of 5x or more and thus covers full spectrum of focal lengths from wide-angle to telephoto. As a result, they have the advantage of being all-in-one lenses that can be used in place of a number of lenses in the focal lengths range, offering a lot of convenience and savings in space, weight, and cost. Sigma 28-200mm F3.5-5.6 Aspherical Hyperzoom Macro Lens is perfect example of superzoom/hyperzoom type of lenses.
A macro lens is a camera lens with super close-focusing capacity designed to take shots at very close distances as well as pick out the tiniest detail. They can focus much nearer than normal lenses, allowing you to fill the frame with your subject and capture more detail. They therefore allow you to photograph small objects such as insects. Canon EF 100mm f/2.8L IS USM Macro Lens below is a perfect example of macro lens.
A pancake lens draws its name from its significantly flatter design than a conventional lens. Its design is such that its height is shorter than the width. This design is meant to produce a thin lens (short barrel), lightweight and compact cameras. A perfect example of pancake lens is the Sony SEL-20F28 E-Mount 20mm F2.8 prime lens